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Toni Morrison- توني موريسون

 Toni Morrison (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford,[2] February 18, 1931 – August 5, 2019[3]) was an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher and professor emeritus at Princeton University.
Morrison won the Pulitzer Prize and the American Book Award in 1988 for Beloved (1987). The novel was adapted into a film of the same name (starring Oprah Winfrey and Danny Glover) in 1998. Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993. In 1996, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected her for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. She was honored with the 1996 National Book Foundation's Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. Morrison wrote the libretto for a new opera, Margaret Garner, first performed in 2005. On May 29, 2012, President Barack Obama presented Morrison with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2016, she received the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction. 

Toni Morrison, original name Chloe Anthony Wofford, (born February 18, 1931, Lorain, Ohio, U.S.—died August 5, 2019, Bronx, New York), American writer noted for her examination of black experience (particularly black female experience) within the black community. She received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993.
Morrison grew up in the American Midwest in a family that possessed an intense love of and appreciation for black culture. Storytelling, songs, and folktales were a deeply formative part of her childhood. She attended Howard University (B.A., 1953) and Cornell University (M.A., 1955). After teaching at Texas Southern University for two years, she taught at Howard from 1957 to 1964. In 1965 Morrison became a fiction editor at Random House, where she worked for a number of years. In 1984 she began teaching writing at the State University of New York at Albany, which she left in 1989 to join the faculty of Princeton University; she retired in 2006.
Morrison’s first book, The Bluest Eye (1970), is a novel of initiation concerning a victimized adolescent black girl who is obsessed by white standards of beauty and longs to have blue eyes. In 1973 a second novel, Sula, was published; it examines (among other issues) the dynamics of friendship and the expectations for conformity within the community. Song of Solomon (1977) is told by a male narrator in search of his identity; its publication brought Morrison to national attention. Tar Baby (1981), set on a Caribbean island, explores conflicts of race, class, and sex.
The critically acclaimed Beloved (1987), which won a Pulitzer Prize for fiction, is based on the true story of a runaway slave who, at the point of recapture, kills her infant daughter in order to spare her a life of slavery. A film adaptation of the novel was released in 1998 and starred Oprah Winfrey. In addition, Morrison wrote the libretto for Margaret Garner (2005), an opera about the same story that inspired Beloved.
In 1992 Morrison released Jazz, a story of violence and passion set in New York City’s Harlem during the 1920s. Subsequent novels were Paradise (1998), a richly detailed portrait of a black utopian community in Oklahoma, and Love (2003), an intricate family story that reveals the myriad facets of love and its ostensible opposite. A Mercy (2008) deals with slavery in 17th-century America. In the redemptive Home (2012), a traumatized Korean War veteran encounters racism after returning home and later overcomes apathy to rescue his sister. In God Help the Child (2015), Morrison chronicled the ramifications of child abuse and neglect through the tale of Bride, a black girl with dark skin who is born to light-skinned parents.
A work of criticism, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination, was published in 1992. Many of Morrison’s essays and speeches were collected in What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction (2008; edited by Carolyn C. Denard) and The Source of Self-Regard: Selected Essays, Speeches, and Meditations (2019). She and her son, Slade Morrison, cowrote a number of children’s books, including the Who’s Got Game? series, The Book About Mean People (2002), and Please, Louise (2014). She also penned Remember (2004), which chronicles the hardships of black students during the integration of the American public school system; aimed at children, it uses archival photographs juxtaposed with captions speculating on the thoughts of their subjects. For that work, Morrison won the Coretta Scott King Award in 2005.
The central theme of Morrison’s novels is the black American experience; in an unjust society, her characters struggle to find themselves and their cultural identity. Her use of fantasy, her sinuous poetic style, and her rich interweaving of the mythic gave her stories great strength and texture. In 2010 Morrison was made an officer of the French Legion of Honour. Two years later she was awarded the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom. Toni Morrison: The Pieces I Am (2019) is a documentary about her life and career.
ولدت توني موريسون في لورين – أوهايو وكانت الطفلة الثانية من بين اربع اطفال في العائلة. كانت موريسون تقرأ باستمرار ومن كتابها المفضلين جين اوستن وليو تولستوي، وكان والدها يروي لها العديد من الحكايات الشعبية عن مجمتمع السود بطرية السرد القصصي والتي ستؤثر لاحقا على أسلوبها في الكتابة. في عام 1949 التحقت موريسون بجامعة هاوارد وفي عام 1953 حصلت على بكلوريوس في الأدب الإنكليزي، وفي عام 1955 نالت شهادة الماجستير من جامعة كورنيل.بعد أن نالت الماجستير عملت في جامعة Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas للمدة (1955-1957) ثم عادت لللعمل في جامعة هاوارد ، تزوجت من المهندس المعماري الجامايكي هارولد موريسون في عام 1958 وتطلقت منه عام 1964 بعد أن انجبت منه طفلين بعد الطلاق انتقلت إلى Syracuse ثم إلى New York لتعمل محررة كتب منهجية ثم محررة في المقر الرئيسي لدار النشر راندوم هاوس Random House وهنا لعبت دوري حيوي في دفع ادب السود إلى الواجهة. 
بدأت موريسون كتابة الروايات الخيالية عندما كانت مشتركة مع مجموعة من الكتاب والشعراء في جامعة هاوارد الذين كانوا يلتقون ويناقشون اعمالهم في أحد المرات ذهبت مورسون إلى الاجتماع وهي تحمل قصة قصيرة عن فتاة سوداء تتوق للحصول على عيون زرقاء وقد طورت هذه القصة فيما بعد لتصبح روايتها الأولى التي تحمل عنوان العين الأكثر زرقة نشرتها عام 1970 كتبت موريسون هذه الرواية في الوقت الذي كانت تربي طفليها وتعمل في جامعة هاوارد، في عام 2000 اختيرت هذه الرواية كواحدة من مختارات نادي اوبرا للكتاب. في عام 1975 رشحت روايتها sula التي كتبتها عام 1973 إلى جائزة الكتاب الوطنية، اما روايتها الثالثة نشيد سليمان فقد اختيرت كتاب الشهر وهي أول رواية لكاتب أسود يتم اختيارها بعد رواية الكاتب ريتشارد التي اختيرت عام 1940 وقد حصلت أيضا على جائزة النقاد الوطنية. في عام 1987 أصبحت روايتها beloved نقطة حرجة في تاريخ نجاحها عندما فشلت في الفوز بجائزة الكتاب الوطنية وجائزة النقاد الوطنية مما حدا بعدد من الكتاب إلى الاحتجاج ضد اغفال مورسون، ولكن بعد مدة قصيرة فازت هذه الرواية بجائزة Pulitzer Prize for fiction وجائزة الكتاب الأمريكي وفي نفس السنة عملت موريسون كاستاذ زائر في Bard College.في عام 1998 تحولت هذه الرواية إلى فلم يحمل نفس الاسم من بطولة اوبرا وينفري ودان كلوفر، ثم استخدمت موريسون قصة حياة ماركريت كارنر في نص ابرالي الف الموسيقى له الفنان ريتشارد دانيبلور. كما رشحت، The New York Times Book Review هذه الرواية في عام 2006 كأفضل رواية أمريكية نشرت خلال الخمس وعشرون سنة الماضية.
الاسمبريد إلكترونيرسالة